The American public also increasingly agrees that global warming is happening. A poll from Yale found that 70 percent of Americans believe global warming is happening, while record low number of Americans 12 percent say the opposite. The acceptance of human-caused emissions as the cause of warming is not keeping pace with those that believe it is happening, but it is at 53 percent.
There is no shortage of published research on the consensus of climate scientists and climate science when it comes to human-caused global warming. In addition to the references above, you can read about how the discussion on consensus developed over time in these studies. Many different scientific societies in the United States and numerous national academies of science from around the world have also issued statements that verify the scientific claims about human-caused warming see below. Therefore, when it comes to scientific consensus on global warming, it is important to clarify what type of uncertainty exists, and what type does not: there is strong certainty on the types of impacts that global warming is causing or would be likely to cause under a given scenario for emissions , but less certainty on the exact timing and intensity of these impacts.
For instance, on the issue of sea level rise, we know with certainty that it will happen — it is already happening — and projections under different scenarios give us a range of possible rise.
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But if we significantly reduce emissions, the rise will be closer to the lower levels of projections. The same is true for how much warming will actually happen, or how much land-based ice and glaciers will melt. All these things are already happening, but future rates are not known because they, too, depend on the rate of future emissions. This information is critical to making smart collective choices and for planning for the future.
Uncertainties are not a reason to delay action on climate change. Quite the contrary: those uncertainties are really a consequence of our collective choices, and a risk we must prepare for. Being prepared for these scenarios is simply smart planning. Nobody wants to be caught unaware and unprepared.
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Many scientific societies and academies have released statements and studies that highlight the overwhelming consensus on climate change science. This conclusion is based on multiple independent lines of evidence and the vast body of peer-reviewed science. It also will continue to degrade ecosystems and natural resources, affecting food and water availability and human health, further burdening economies and societies.
Continued uncontrolled GHG emissions will accelerate and compound the effects and risks of climate change well into the future. These observations show large-scale increases in air and sea temperatures, sea level, and atmospheric water vapor; they document decreases in the extent of mountain glaciers, snow cover, permafrost, and Arctic sea ice. These changes are broadly consistent with long-understood physics and predictions of how the climate system is expected to respond to human-caused increases in greenhouse gases.
The changes are inconsistent with explanations of climate change that rely on known natural influences. American Meteorological Society: Climate Change: An Information Statement of the American Meteorological Society "It is clear from extensive scientific evidence that the dominant cause of the rapid change in climate of the past half century is human-induced increases in the amount of atmospheric greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide CO2 , chlorofluorocarbons, methane, and nitrous oxide.
Although the magnitudes of future effects are uncertain, human influences on the climate are growing. Geological Society of America : Position Statement on Climate Change "Scientific advances have greatly reduced previous uncertainties about recent global warming. Recent climate changes have had widespread impacts on human and natural systems.
The atmosphere and ocean have warmed, the amounts of snow and ice have diminished, and sea level has risen. Changing agricultural conditions, ocean warming and acidification, rising sea levels, and increased frequency and intensity of many extreme weather events are impacting infrastructure, environmental assets and human health. Tectonics 20 , — Hubbard, J.
Structural segmentation controlled the M w 7. Geology 44 , — Wobus, C. Active out-of-sequence thrust faulting in the central Nepalese Himalaya. Nature , — Bollinger, L. Thermal structure and exhumation history of the Lesser Himalaya in central Nepal. Tectonics 23 , TC Duputel, Z. The Gorkha earthquake: a large event illuminating the Main Himalayan Thrust fault.
Whipple, K. Active shortening within the Himalayan orogenic wedge implied by the Gorkha earthquake. Gao, R.
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Crustal-scale duplexing beneath the Yarlung Zangbo suture in the western Himalaya. Lemonnier, C. Electrical structure of the Himalaya of central Nepal: high conductivity around the mid-crustal ramp along the MHT. Karplus, M.
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Aftershocks of the M7. Union , abstr. S41D WaldHauser, F. A double-difference earthquake location algorithm: method and application to the northern Hayward fault, California.
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Pandey, M. Ader, T. Convergence rate across the Nepal Himalaya and interseismic coupling on the Main Himalayan Thrust: implications for seismic hazard. Solid Earth , B Bettinelli, P. Hermann, R. Computer programs in seismology: an evolving tool for instruction and research. Dziewonski, A. Determination of earthquake source parameters from waveform data for studies of global and regional seismicity.
Solid Earth 86 , — Bai, L. Upper crustal shortening and forward modeling of the Himalayan thrust belt along the Budhi-Gandaki River, central Nepal. Earth Sci.
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GPS measurements of present-day convergence across the Nepal Himalaya. Nature , 61—64 Cattin, R. Modeling mountain building and the seismic cycle in the Himalaya of Nepal. Solid Earth , — Pulsed deformation and variable slip rates within the central Himalayan thrust belt. Lithosphere 4 , — Mendoza, M.
tersbrecherex.tk Dynamic triggering of small local earthquakes in the central Himalaya. Ross, Z. Paige, C. LSQR: an algorithm for sparse linear equations and sparse least squares.
ACM Trans. Wiemer, S. A software package to analyze seismicity: ZMAP. Download references. We thank the Department of Mines and Geology in Nepal for the opportunity to collaborate on science that will help build communities that are more resilient to future earthquakes. This experiment was made possible by the field crew who helped install and maintain the seismic network, including C. Timsina, D. Tiwari, M.